Complete Bibliography

I consulted so many different sources for Vex, Hex, Smash, Smooch—sometimes just to find or confirm one small statement or misstatement—that the bibliography grew ridiculously long. So a “selected bibliography" appears in the book. Here, though, is my entire, unedited list of sources, for those who enjoy disappearing down rabbit holes.
  • Ahrens, Lynn. “A Noun Is a Person, Place or Thing.” Schoolhouse Rock!: Grammar Rock. Directed by Tom Warburton.  American Broadcasting Company. 1973. New York: ABC, 2002. DVD.
  • Alford, Henry. A Plea for the Queen’s English. New York: Routledge & Sons, 1864.
  • American Dialect Society.”About the American Dialect Society.”  Accessed Oct. 12, 2011. http://www.americandialect.org/.
  • American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000.
  • American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 5th ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2011.
  • Atchison, Jean. Language Change: Progress or Decay? 2d ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  • Baker, Peter S. “Verbs.” The Electronic Introduction to Old English. The Medieval Institute, Western Michigan University. http://www.wmich.edu/~medinst/resources/IOE/inflverb.html.
  • Baldwin, James. “If Black English Isn’t a Language, Then Tell Me, What Is?” New York Times, July 29, 1979.
  • Barber, Charles. The English Language: A Historical Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
  • Barden, Paul. “Tea Roses.” Old Garden Roses and Beyond. June 26, 2011. http://paulbardenroses.com/teas/index.html.
  • Baron, Dennis. “OED Hearts OMG.” Visual Thesaurus. Apr. 11, 2011. https://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/dictionary/2815/.
  • Barry, Dave. “Ask Mr. Language Person.” Miami Herald, May 9, 1993.
  • Baugh, Albert C., and Thomas Cable. A History of the English Language. 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1993.
  • Bay Area Slang (blog). http://www.bayareaslang.com/.
  • Beard, Jo Ann. The Boys of My Youth. New York: Back Bay Books, 1998.
  • Beckwith, Martha Warren, ed. and trans. The Kumulipo: A Hawaiian Creation Chant. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.
  • Bell, Janis. Clean, Well-Lighted Sentences. New York: W. W. Norton, 2008.
  • Bellow, Saul. Seize the Day. New York: Penguin Books, 2003.
  • Beowulf. Translated by Seamus Heaney. New York: W. W. Norton, 2000. Bernstein, Theodore M. The Careful Writer: A Modern Guide to English Usage. New York: Atheneum, 1965.
  • ———. Miss Thistlebottom’s Hobgoblins: The Careful Writer’s Guide to the Taboos, Bugbears and Outmoded Rules of English Usage. New York: Noonday Press, 1971.
  • Bickerton, Derek. Bastard Tongues. New York: Hill and Wang, 2008.
  • ———. Interview by Constance Hale. Jan. 24, 2012.
  • ———. Language and Species. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.
  • Biden, Joseph. “Farewell Speech to the Senate.” Speech, Washington, DC, Jan. 15, 2009.  http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2009/01/sen_joe_bidens_farewell_speech.html.
  • ———. “Text of Joe Biden's Acceptance Speech for the Vice Presidential Nomination.” New York Daily News, Aug. 28, 2008.
  • Biden, Joseph, and Sarah Palin. “Transcript of Palin, Biden Debate.” CNN Politics.com. Oct. 2, 2008. http://articles.cnn.com/2008-10-02/politics/debate.transcript_1_biden-debate-joe-biden-sarah-palin?_s=PM:POLITICS.
  • Blitzer, Wolf. “White House: Clinton Made Mistake Over Coffee.” CNN.com. Jan. 5,1997. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/10/02/debate.transcript
  • Bolton, W. F., and David Crystal, eds. The English Language. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1987.
  • Bonner, Stanley Frederick. Education in Ancient Rome: From the Elder Cato to the Younger Pliny. New York: Putnam, 1963.
  • Bright, James Wilson. An Anglo-Saxon Reader. 4th ed. New York: Henry Holt and Co.,  1917.
  • Bronner, Simon J, ed. The Folklore Historian 24 (2007).
  • Brown, Kevin. “Diagramming Won’t Help This Situation.” In Exit Lines. Austin, TX: Plain View Press, 2009.
  • Browning, Elizabeth Barrett. Elizabeth Barrett Browning: Selected Poems. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993.
  • Bryson, Bill. Bryson’s Dictionary of Troublesome Words: A Writer’s Guide to Getting It Right. New York: Broadway Books, 2002.
  • ———. The Mother Tongue. New York: Avon Books, 1990.
  • Bucholtz, Mary. White Kids: Language, Race, and Styles of Youth Identity. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  • Burchfield, R. W. The New Fowler’s Modern English Usage. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
  • Burr, Ty. The 100 Greatest Movies of All Time. New York: Time Life, 1999.
  • Bush, George. “Address Accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Republican National Convention in New Orleans.” Speech, Aug. 18, 1988. The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=25955.
  • Bush, George W. “9/11 Address to the Nation.” Speech, Oval Office, Washington, DC, Sept. 11, 2001. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/gwbush911addresstothenation.htm.
  • Capital Community College Foundation. Guide to Grammar and Writing. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/.
  • Carey, James W. Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989.
  • Casagrande, Jun. It Was the Best of Sentences, It Was the Worst of Sentences. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 2010.
  • Chambers, Robert, ed. The Book of Days: A Miscellany of Popular Antiquities. Vol. 2. London: W. & R. Chambers, 1864.
  • Chamoiseau, Patrick. Solibo Magnificent. New York, Vintage International, 1999.
  • Chandler, Raymond to Edward Weeks in about 1947. In The Raymond Chandler Papers: Selected Letters and Nonfiction, 1909–1959,  edited by Tom Hiney and Frank McShane. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000.
  • Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales in Modern English. Translated by Neville Coghill. London: Penguin Books, 1951.
  • Cheyney, Edward Potts.  A Short History of England.  Boston: The Atheneum Press, 1918.
  • Chicago Tribune. “White House Tightens Sununu’s Travel Rules.” June 23, 1991.
  • Clark, Roy Peter. The Glamour of Grammar. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2010.
  • Clinton, William Jefferson.  Transcript of speech about grand jury testimony, Washington, DC, Aug. 17, 1998. CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/08/17/speech/transcript.html.
  • Columbia Journalism Review. Squad Helps Dog Bite Victim, and Other Flubs from the Nation's Press. New York: Doubleday, 1980.
  • Combe, Inc. “Get Close.” (Lectric Shave commercial.) France: BDDP, 2010.
  • Corbett, Philip B. “A Plague of Danglers.” New York Times, July 12, 2011.
  • ———. “To [Boldly] Go.” New York Times, Oct. 27, 2008.
  • Costikyan, Greg. “Talk Like a Gamer.” Verbatim: The Language Quarterly, 2002.
  • Crane, Stephen. The Red Badge of Courage. 1895. Reprint, New York: Tor Books, 1990.
  • Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • ———. Dictionary of Linguistics and Phoenetics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003.
  • ———. How Language Works: How Babies Babble, Words Change Meaning, and Languages Live or Die. New York: Overlook Press, 2005.
  • ———. A Little Book of Language. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.
  • ———. “Past Imperfect. Present Tense. Future Perfect? Language Play and the Culture of Literacy.” Paper presented at UKRA Annual Conference, July 1996.
  • ———The Stories of English. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 2004.
  • Cukor-Avila, Patricia. “Co-existing Grammars: The Relationship Between African American and Southern Whiter Vernacular English in the South.” In Sociocultural and Historical Contexts of African American English, edited by Sonja L. Lanehart.. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: Benjamins, 2001.
  • Curwen, Thomas. “Waiting for Death, Alone and Unafraid.” Los Angeles Times, Feb. 28, 2009.
  • Dennett, Daniel. Kinds of Minds. New York: Basic Books, 1996.
  • de Rouvroy, Louis, duc de Saint-Simon. The Age of Magnificence: The Memoirs of the Duc de Saint-Simon. Translated by Sanche de Gramont. New York: G. P. Putnam’s, 1963.
  • Defoe, Daniel. Robinson Crusoe. 1719. Reprint, New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 2001.
  • Deutscher, Guy. “You Are What You Speak.” New York Times, Aug. 29, 2010.
  • Díaz, Junot. The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. New York: Riverhead Books, 2007.
  • Dickson, Paul. Baseball’s Greatest Quotations. Rev. ed. New York: HarperCollins, 2008.
  • Didion, Joan. “Why I Write.” Regents Lecture, University of California at Berkeley, 1976. http://people.bridgewater.edu/~atrupe/ENG310/Didion.pdf.
  • ———. The Year of Magical Thinking. New York: Vintage International, 2007.
  • Dimon, Jamie. Testimony Before the House Financial Services Committee. Speech, Washington, DC, Feb. 11, 2009. http://financialservices.house.gov/media/file/hearings/111/jamiedimon021109.pdf.
  • “’Dizzy’ Dean (1910–1974).” In Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture. The Central Arkansas Library System, 2012. http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?search=1&entryID=13.
  • Doerr, Anthony. Four Seasons in Rome: On Twins, Insomnia, and the Biggest Funeral in the History of the World. New York: Scribner, 2007.
  • “Dogs Decoded.” Nova. Directed by Dan Child. PBS, Nov. 12, 2011.
  • Donne, John. “Elegy 19. To His Mistress Going to Bed.” In The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol. B, The Sixteenth Century/Early Seventeenth Century, edited by Stephen Greenblatt et al. New York: W. W. Norton, 2006.
  • Dowd, Maureen. “Liberties; the Wizard of Is.” New York Times, Sept. 16, 1998.
  • ———. “Sexy Ruses to Stop Forgetting to Remember.” New York Times, Mar. 8, 2011.
  • Dryden, John. The Works of John Dryden. Vol. 4, Poems, 1693–1696. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.
  • Durkin, Philip. “Five Events that Shaped the History of English.” Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press, May 24, 2011.  http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/page/thehistoryofenglish?view=uk.
  • Eggen, Dan, and Paul Kane. “Gonzales: ‘Mistakes Were Made.’” Washington Post, Mar. 14, 2007.
  • Einsohn, Amy. The Copyeditor’s Handbook: A Guide for Book Publishing and Corporate Communications. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
  • Elster, Charles Harrington. The Accidents of Style: Good Advice on How Not to Write Badly. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2010.
  • Erdrich, Louise. Tracks. New York: HarperCollins, 1989.
  • Fallows, Deborah. Dreaming in Chinese: Lessons in Life, Love, and Language. New York: Walker and Company, 2010.
  • “Federal Plain Language Guidelines: Use Short, Simple Words.” PlainLanguage.gov. Apr. 24, 2011. http://www.plainlanguage.gov/howto/guidelines/FederalPLGuidelines/writeShort.cfm.
  • Fershleiser, Rachel, and Larry Smith. Not Quite What I Was Planning: Six-Word Memoirs by Writers Famous and Obscure. New York: HarperCollins, 2008.
  • Finegan, Edward. Attitudes Toward English Usage: The History of a War of Words. New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1980.
  • Florey, Kitty Burns. Sister Bernadette’s Barking Dog: The Quirky History and Lost Art of Diagramming Sentences. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 2006.
  • Follett, Wilson. Modern American Usage: A Guide. Revised by Erik Wensberg. New York: Hill and Wang, 1998.
  • Fowler, H. W. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1926.
  • Fowler, H. W., and F. G. Fowler. The King’s English. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1931.
  • Friend, Tim. Animal Talk: Breaking the Codes of Animal Language. New York: Free Press, 2004.
  • Fromkin, Victoria, and Robert Rodman. An Introduction to Language. 3rd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1983.
  • García Márquez, Gabriel. One Hundred Years of Solitude. Translated by Gregory Rabassa. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.
  • Garman, Michael. “Syntax: The Structure of English.” In The English Language,  edited by W. F. Bolton and David Crystal. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1987.
  • Garner, Bryan A. A Dictionary of Modern American Usage. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
  • ———. A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  • ———. Garner’s Modern American Usage. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Garrett, Andrew. “Paradigmatic Uniformity and Markedness.” Linguistics Department, UC Berkeley. 2008. http://www.linguistics.berkeley.edu/~garrett/ParadigmLeveling.pdf.
  • Garrett-Goodyear, Joan H., Elizabeth Harries, Douglas L. Patey, and Margaret L. Shook. Writing Papers: A Handbook for Students at Smith College. Littleton,MA: Sundance, 1981.
  • Garrison, Jessica. “Ron Ziegler, 63; Press Secretary Remained Loyal to Nixon Throughout Watergate.” Los Angeles Times, Feb. 11, 2003.
  • Geisel, Theodor Seuss. Green Eggs and Ham. New York: Beginner Books, 1960.
  • Gellhorn, Martha. “The Third Winter.” In The Face of War. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1988.
  • The Gleaners and I. Directed by Agnes Varda, 2000. Film. YouTube video. Posted May 25, 2009. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aKgjjEJvMbM%5D.
  • Gleick, James. The Information. New York: Random House, 2011.
  • Global Language Monitor. “Number of Words in the English Language: 1,010,649.” Global Language Monitor. Accessed Oct. 10, 2011. http://www.languagemonitor.com/global-english/number-of-words-in-the-english-language-1008879/.
  •  “Golden Bull Awards 2009.”  Plain English Campaign. Last modified Dec. 9, 2010. http://www.plainenglish.co.uk/awards/golden-bull-awards/golden-bull-winners-2009.html.
  • Goodwin, John E. The Book of Common Prayer. Forgotten Books, 2007.
  • Gordon, Karen Elizabeth. The Deluxe Transitive Vampire: The Ultimate Handbook of Grammar for the Innocent, the Eager, and the Doomed. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984.
  • ———. Out of the Loud Hound of Darkness: A Dictionarrative. New York: Pantheon Books, 1998.
  • ———. Torn Wings and Faux Pas: A Flashbook of Style, A Beastly Guide Through the Writer’s Labyrinth. New York: Pantheon Books, 1997.
  •  Graddol, David, Dick Leith, and Joan Swann. English: History, Diversity, and Change. New York: Routledge, 1996.
  • “Grammar and Usage.” In The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Quotations. 2d ed. Edited by Peter Kemp. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Guberman, Ross. “When Bad Grammar Happens to Good Candidates.” Legal Writing Pro. 2010. http://www.legalwritingpro.com/articles/D13-candidate-grammar.php.
  • Gutiérrez, Pedro Juan. Dirty Havana Trilogy. Translated by Natasha Wimmer. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2002.
  • Hadley, Dawn M. The Northern Danelaw: Its Social Structure, c. 800–1100. New York: Leicester University Press, 2000.
  • Hahl, Elise. “Nerds, Jocks, and the Great English Makeover.” Sin and Syntax. Sept. 22, 2010. http://www.sinandsyntax.com/talking-syntax/hahl/.
  • Hale, Constance. Sin and Syntax. New York: Broadway Books, 1999.
  • ———. Wired Style. San Francisco: HardWired, 1996.
  • ———. Wired Style. 2d ed. New York: Broadway Books, 1999.
  • Harding, Paul. Tinkers. New York: Bellevue Literary Press, 2008.
  • Harper, Douglas. The Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php.
  • Hemingway, Ernest. The Complete Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway: The Finca Vigía Edition. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987.
  • ———. A Farewell to Arms. 1929. Reprint, New York: Scribner Classics, 1997.
  • ———. Green Hills of Africa. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1963.
  • Henderson, Mark. “FOXP2 Gene Shows Why We Can Talk, but Chimps Can’t Answer Back.” Times of London, Nov. 12, 2009.
  • Herodotus. The Landmark Herodotus: The Histories. Edited by Robert B. Strassler. Translated by Andrea L. Purvis. New York: Pantheon Books, 2007. Anchor Books paperback 2009.
  • Hersey, John. Hiroshima. 1946. Reprint, New York: Ishi Press, 2010.
  • Hillenbrand, Laura. Seabiscuit. New York: Ballantine Books, 2001.
  • Hockett, Charles Francis. A Course in Modern Linguistics. New York: Macmillan, 1958.
  • Holy Bible, King James Version. New York: American Bible Society, 1999.
  • Horwitz, Tony. “The 150-Year War.” New York Times, Oct. 31, 2010.
  • “House, Barn Catch on Fire.” WMUR New Hampshire, March 28, 2011.
  • Huang, Xiaozhao. A Study of African American Vernacular English in America’s “Middletown.” Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2001.
  • Hughes, Patrick. More on Oxymoron. London: Jonathan Cape, 1984
  • Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. 1937. Reprint, Virago Press: London, 1992.
  • “Indo-European Lexicon: Pokorny Master PIE Etyma.”  The Linguistics Research Center. University of Texas, Austin. Last modified Aug. 23, 2011. http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/ielex/PokornyMaster-R.html.
  •  “The Iran-Contra Affair.” American Experience. PBS.org. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/reagan-iran/.
  • Jackendoff, Ray. Foundations of Language: Brain, Meaning, Grammar, Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • ———. Interview by Constance Hale. Dec. 29, 2011.
  • Jelinek, Eloise, and Richard A. Demers. “Predicates and Pronominal Arguments in Straits Salish.” Language 70, no. 4 (Dec. 1994).
  • Johnson, Christopher. Microstyle. New York: W. W. Norton, 2011.
  • Johnson, Samuel. “Preface.” In A Dictionary of the English Language. London: Richard Bentley, 1755.
  • Jonson, Ben, and William Gifford. The Works of Ben Jonson. Vol. 8. London: Bickers and Son, 1875.
  • Justus, Carol, and Jonathan Slocum. “Indo-European Grammar: Mood.” University of Texas at Austin Linguistics Research Center. Published Nov. 10, 2009. http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/iedocctr/ie-ling/mood.html.
  • Kamen, Al. “A Great Campaign Slogan, for a Change.” Washington Post, Jun. 16, 2004.
  • Keats, Jonathon. Virtual Words. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Keillor, Garrison. “Hoppers.” New Yorker, Apr. 11, 1988.
  • Kemmerer, David. “Action Verbs, Argument Structure Constructions, and the Mirror Neuron System.” In Action to Language via the Mirror Neuron System, edited by Michael A. Arbib. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • Kenneally, Christine. The First Word: The Search for the Origins of Language. New York: Penguin, 2007.
  • ———. “Talking Heads.” New Scientist, May 29, 2010.
  • Kilpatrick, James.  “What a Difference a Phrase Makes!”  Times-Union (Albany, NY), Jan. 17, 1990.
  • Kincade, M. Dale. “Salish Evidence Against the Universality of ‘Noun’ and ‘Verb.’” Lingua 60, no. 1 (1983).
  • King, Stephen. On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft. New York: Pocket Books, 2000.
  • Kitwana, Bakari. Why White Kids Love Hip Hop: Wankstas, Siggers, Wannabes, and the New Reality of Race in America. Cambridge: Basic Civitas Books, 2005.
  • Koch, Kenneth. The Collected Poems of Kenneth Koch. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.
  • Labov, William. “Co-existent Systems in African-American Vernacular English.” In African American English: Structure, History, and Use, edited by Salikoko S. Mufwene et. al. New York: Routledge, 1998.
  • Learning and Skills Improvement Service. Statement of Strategic Direction.. 2009. http://www.lsis.org.uk/Documents/LSISStrategicDirection2009.pdf.
  • Leith, Dick. A Social History of English. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983.
  • Lekhi, Rohit. Public Service Innovation. Research Republic LLP for The Work Foundation’s Knowledge Economy Programme. June 2007. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/DownloadPublication/Report/70_70_PSI2.pdf.
  • Levi’s. “Go Forth.” (Levi’s print campaign.) Portland: Wieden and Kennedy, 2010.
  • Lewis, Sinclair. Elmer Gantry. 1927. Reprint, New York: Signet Classics, 1967.
  • Liberman, Anatoly. An Analytic Dictionary of English Etymology: An Introduction. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.
  • Lieberman, Philip. Eve Spoke: Human Language and Human Evolution. New York: W. W. Norton, 1998.
  • Liliu‘okalani, Queen of Hawaii, trans. The Kumulipo: An Hawaiian Creation Myth. Kentfield, CA: Pueo Press, 1978.
  • Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” Nov. 19, 1863. In Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address: Echoes of the Bible and Book of Common Prayer, edited by A. E. Elmore. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2009.
  • “Literature Online.” Chadwyck-Healey, ProQuest. lion.chadwyck.com.
  • Long, Charles. Alpha: The Myths of Creation. 1963. Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1983.
  • “Love’s Moods and Senses.” In The Book of Humorous Verse, edited by Carolyn Wells. New York: George H. Doran, 1934.
  •  “The Lower Case: Headlines That Editors Probably Wish They Could Take Back.” Columbia Journalism Review, Dec. 1, 2010.
  • Lowth, Robert. A Short Introduction to English Grammar. 1762. Reprint, Menston, England: The Scolar Press Ltd., 1967.
  • Lynch, Jack. The Lexicographer’s Dilemma. New York: Walker and Company, 2009.
  • Lyons, John. Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968.
  • McAdam, E. L., and George Milne. Johnson’s Dictionary: A Modern Selection. London: Cassell, 1995.
  • McCarthy, Cormac. All the Pretty Horses. New York: Vintage International, 1993.
  • ———. The Road. New York: Vintage Books, 2006.
  • McCrum, Robert, William Cran, and Robert MacNeil. The Story of English. New York: Viking Penguin, Inc., 1986.
  • McCullers, Carson. The Ballad of the Sad Café and Other Stories. New York: Mariner Books, 2005.
  • McFeely, William S. Grant. New York: W. W. Norton, 1982.
  • McGinty, Kathy. “Nine Easy Steps to Longer Sentences.” PlainLanguage.gov. http://www.plainlanguage.gov/examples/humor/9easysteps.cfm.
  • McGrath, Ben. “The Undead.” The New Yorker, July 12, 2010.
  • McPhee, John. “Linksland and Bottle.” The New Yorker, Sept. 6, 2010.
  • McQuain, Jeffrey, and Stanley Malless. Coined by Shakespeare: Words & Meanings First Penned by the Bard. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc., 1998.
  • McWhorter, John. KQED Forum. Interview by Michael Krasny. 88.5 KQED FM, Aug. 25, 2011. http://castroller.com/Podcasts/KqedsForum/2506761.
  • ———. Our Magnificent Bastard Tongue: The Untold History of English. New York: Gotham Books, 2008.
  • Marley, Bob, and Peter Tosh. “Get Up, Stand Up.” Burnin’. Tuff Gong Records/Island Records. 1973.
  • Mathews, Jay. “Teachers Put Grammar Lessons on the Line; Sentence Diagramming Resurfaces.” Washington Post, Feb. 3, 2002.
  • Means, David. “The Knocking.” The New Yorker, Mar. 15, 2010.
  • Memoli, Michael A. “For Hawaii Governor, Discrediting Anti-Obama ‘Birthers’ Is a Top Priority.” Los Angeles Times, Dec. 24, 2010.
  • Mencken, H. L. The American Language: An Inquiry into the Development of English in the United States. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962.
  • The Merriam-Webster New Book of Word Histories. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc., 1991.
  • Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. Tenth Edition. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc., 1995.
  • Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc., 1994.
  • Memphis Harmonizers. “Catch on Fire.” YouTube video. Dec. 17, 2007. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1g6bSd9fKI.
  • Metcalf, Allan. OK: The Improbable Story of America’s Greatest Word. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Michel, Jean-Baptiste, Yuan Kui Shen, Aviva Presser Aiden, et al. “Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books.” Science, published online ahead of print Dec. 16, 2010. http://www.culturomics.org/.
  • Midgley, Neil. “Sarah Palin Dives in Poll Ratings as Tina Fey Impersonates Her on Saturday Night Live.” Telegraph, Oct. 14, 2008.
  • Miller, Henry. Tropic of Cancer. New York: Grove Press, 1961.
  • Millward, C. M., and Mary Hayes. A Biography of the English Language. 3rd ed. Boston: Wadsworth, 2012.
  • Mitchell, Bruce, and Fred C. Robinson. A Guide to Old English. 6th ed. Maldon, MA: Blackwell Publishers, Inc., 2001.
  • Modern Library. “100 Best Novels of the 20th Century.” http://www.modernlibrary.com/top-100/100-best-novels/.
  • Montopoli, Brian. “Verbs? We Don’t Need No Stinkin’ Verbs.” Columbia Journalism Review, Apr. 16, 2004.
  • Morrison, Toni. Paradise. New York: Plume, 1999.
  • ———. Sula. 1973. Reprint, New York: Plume, 1982.
  • Mullen, Haryette. “Sleeping with the Dictionary” and “We Are Not Responsible.” Sleeping with the Dictionary. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
  • Murray, Lindley. English Grammar. 1795. Reprint, Menston, England: The Scolar Press, 1968.
  • Nabokov, Vladimir. Lolita. New York: Random House, 1955.
  • National African Language Resource Center. “Sango.” Apr. 7, 2010. http://nalrc.wisc.edu/brochures/Sango.pdf.
  • Nevalainen, Terttu. “Early Modern English Lexis and Semantics.” In The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. 3, 1476–1776, edited by Roger Lass. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
  • New York Times. “Loose Tiles.”  Jan. 17, 1999.
  • ———. “OMG!!!OED!!!LOL!!!!!” Apr. 4, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/05/opinion/05tue4.html.
  • New York Times News Service. “White House Tightens Sununu’s Travel Rules.” Chicago Tribune, Jun. 23, 1991.
  • Noonan, Peggy. “Obama Redeclares War.” Wall Street Journal, Dec. 5, 2009. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704007804574574311658007036.html.
  • ———. What I Saw at the Revolution. New York: Random House, 2003.
  • Norris, Mary. “Copy Editing at the New Yorker Magazine.” Interview by Andy Ross. Red Room. Sept. 20, 2009.  http://redroom.com/member/andy-ross/blog/copy-editing-at-the-new-yorker-magazine-an-interview-with-mary-norris.
  • Nunnally, Thomas. “The Possessive with Gerunds: What the Handbooks Say, and What They Should Say.” American Speech 66, no. 4 (Winter, 1991).
  • O’Conner, Patricia T. Woe Is I: The Grammarphobe’s Guide to Better English in Plain English. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1996.
  • O’Conner, Patricia T., and Stewart Kellerman. Origins of the Specious: Myths and Misconceptions of the English Language. New York: Random House, 2009.
  • Okuda, Michael and Denise. “Vulcan MindMeld.” In The Star Trek Encyclopedia. New York: Pocket Books, 1999.
  • Oppenheimer, Todd. “Breaking Bread.” San Francisco Magazine, Nov. 2010.
  • Orlean, Susan. “Little Wing.” The New Yorker, Feb. 13, 2006.
  • ———. “Plant Crimes.” The New Yorker, Nov. 30, 1998.
  • Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-four. New York: Penguin Books, 1963.
  • ———.  “Politics and the English Language.” In A Collection of Essays. New York: Harcourt Books, 1946.
  • “Outline of the Proto-Indo-European Verb System.” The University of Pennsylvania Linguistics Department. http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~kroch/courses/lx310/ringe-handouts-09/pie-pgmc-vb.pdf.
  • The Oxford English Dictionary. 2d ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.
  • The Oxford English Dictionary. 3rd ed.  OED Online. http://www.oed.com.
  • Packer, George. “The Empty Chamber.” The New Yorker, Aug. 9, 2010.
  • Pagel, Mark. Encyclopedia of Evolution. 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Palmer, Frank. “Language and Languages.” In The English Language,  edited by W. F. Bolton and David Crystal. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1987.
  • ———. Mood and Modality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Parish, Peggy. Amelia Bedelia. New York: HarperCollins, 1963.
  • Payne, Laura. Walk in the WoRds (blog). http://walkinthewords.blogspot.com.
  • Penfield, Joyce, and Jacob Ornstein-Galicia. Chicano English: An Ethnic Contact. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 1985.
  • Perlman, Merril. “Duty Double.” Columbia Journalism Review, Jan. 10, 2011.
  • Peters, Pam. The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Pfizer. “Confessions” and “Bleep.” (Viagra campaigns). Toronto: TAXI, 2010.
  • Pinker, Steven. “Irregular Verbs.” http://pinker.wjh.harvard.edu/articles/media/2000_03_landfall.html.
  • ———. The Language Instinct. New York: Harper Perennial, 1995.
  • ———The Stuff of Thought: Language as a Window into Human Nature. New York: Viking, 2007.
  • ———. Words and Rules. New York: HarperCollins, 1999.
  • Plotnik, Arthur. “Are You Saxy Enough? When Sentences Flag, Get in Touch with Your Inner Anglo-Saxon.” The Writer, Feb. 2007.
  • Pope, Alexander. Essay on Criticism. New York: MacMillan, 1896.
  • Quinion, Michael. “try and.” World Wide Words.  Feb. 9, 2008. http://www.worldwidewords.org/qa/qa-try1.htm.
  • Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. Harlow: Longman Group Ltd., 1985.
  • Raban, Jonathan. Bad Land: An American Romance. New York: Vintage, 1997.
  • Raghavan, Sudarsan. “Anguish in the Ruins of Mutanabi Street.” Washington Post, Mar. 10, 2007.
  • Random House Webster’s: Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation. New York: Random House, 2008.
  • Random House Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary. 2d ed. New York: Random House, 2001.
  • Reagan, Ronald. “Tear Down This Wall.” Speech, West Berlin, Jun. 12, 1987.
  • Rickford, John R. African American Vernacular English: Features, Evolution, Educational Implications. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 1999.
  • Roberts, Gregory David. Shantaram. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2003.
  • Roberts, Sam. “Dot-Dot-Dot, Dash-Dash-Dash, No More.” New York Times, Feb. 12, 2006.
  • Rundell, Michael, and Gwenyth Fox. Macmillan Essential Dictionary: For Learners of American English.  Oxford: Macmillan Education, 2003.
  • Safire, William. “Clintonyms,” New York Times, Dec. 2, 2001.
  • ———. Coming to Terms. New York: Doubleday, 1991.
  • ———. Fumblerules. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
  • ———. How Not to Write: The Essential Misrules of Grammar. New York: W. W. Norton, 2005.
  • ———. I Stand Corrected. New York: Times Books, 1984.
  • ———. Let a Simile Be Your Umbrella. New York: Crown Publishers, 2001.
  • ———. No Uncertain Terms. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003.
  • ———. On Language. New York: Times Books, 1980.
  • ———. “On Language: Defuse Those Participles.” New York Times, Feb. 27, 1994.
  • ———. “On Language: Flagellum Dei.” New York Times, Oct. 19, 2003.
  • ———. “On Language: If You Got It Flaunt It.” New York Times, Apr. 27, 1997.
  • ———. “On Language: Sotomayoralities.” New York Times, June 21, 2009.
  • ———. “On Language: Tense Encounter.” The New York Times, Jan. 19, 1992.
  • ———. “Washington Tense. Ocala Star-Banner, July 14, 1991.
  • ———. Watching My Language. New York: Random House, 1997.
  •  “Sango Language.” In Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Aug. 25, 2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/522387/Sango-language.
  • Schmid, Randolph E. “Humans Left Africa Earlier, Team Finds.” Honolulu Star-Advertiser, Jan. 28, 2011.
  • Seay, Elizabeth. Searching for Lost City: On the Trail of America’s Native Languages. Guilford, CT: Lyons Press, 2003.
  • Seneca, Lucius Annaeus. Medea. Translated by John Studley. London: Thomas Colwell, 1566.
  • Shakespeare, William. The Complete Works. Edited by Stanley Wells and Gary Taylor. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
  • ———. Shakespeare’s Great Soliloquies. Edited by Bob Blaisdell. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2006.
  • Shaw, George Bernard. Agitations: Letters to the Press, 1875–1950. Edited by Dan H. Laurence and James Rambeau. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1985.
  • Sheehan, Susan. “Laundromat.” The New Yorker, 1971.
  • Shepard, Jim. “Boys Town.” The New Yorker, Nov. 8, 2010.
  • Shertzer, Margaret. The Elements of Grammar. New York: Macmillan, 1986.
  • Simon, John. Paradigms Lost. New York: Random House, 1988.
  • Simoniz (Print ads from the Nov. 1933 issue of Popular Science and from a 1943 newspaper campaign)..
  • Simoniz, www.simonizusa.com.
  • Skeat, Walter W. The Concise Dictionary of English Etymology. Ware, England: Wordsworth Editions Ltd., 1993.
  • ———. The Science of Etymology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1912.
  • Slocum, Jonathan, and Winfred P. Lehmann. “Old English Online: Series Introduction.” Linguistic Research Center. College of Liberal Arts, The University of Texas at Austin.  Last modified Aug. 11, 2011. http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/engol-0-X.html.
  • Smiley, Lauren. “The New U Visa.” SF Weekly, March 16–22, p. 11.
  • Smith, Jeremy. Essentials of Early English. New York: Routledge, 1999.
  • Smith, Larry. SMITH Magazine. http://www.smithmag.net/.
  • Smith, Russell. “Do You Know the Difference Between ‘May’ and ‘Might’?” The Globe and Mail, Apr. 6, 2011.
  • ———. “There’s No Tense Like the Present.” The Globe and Mail, Mar. 9, 2011.
  • ———. “Why Let the Use of Nouns as Verbs Impact You?” The Globe and Mail, Apr. 8, 2010.
  • Smitherman, Geneva. Talkin That Talk: African American Language and Culture. New York: Routledge, 2000.
  • Solnit, Rebecca. Wanderlust: A History of Walking. New York: Penguin Books, 2001.
  • Spokane Chronicle. “Please Forgive Me, Officer; My Recollections Were Driving Again.” Oct. 29, 1991.
  • Sproul, Barbara C. Primal Myths: Creation Myths Around the World. New York: HarperCollins, 1979.
  • Stackhouse, Thomas. Reflections on the Nature and Property of Language in General, on the Advantages, Defects, and Manner of Improving the English Tongue in Particular. London: Dove, 1731.
  • Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, Susan B. Anthony, and Matilda J. Gage. History of Woman Suffrage. Vol. 1, 1848–1861. Rochester, NY: Susan B. Anthony, Charles Mann, 1881. (For more on this passage, visit www.vex-hex.com/Sojourner_Truth.)
  • Steffens, Lincoln. The Autobiography of Lincoln Steffens. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1958.
  • Steinbeck, John. Grapes of Wrath. 1939. Reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 2006.
  • Steinberg, Jacques. “With Common Application, Many Find a Technical Difficulty in Common, Too.” New York Times, Dec. 22, 2010.
  • Strunk, William Jr., and E. B. White. The Elements of Style. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1979.
  • Swick, Thomas.“Town of Letters.” In A Way to See the World, 164–65. Guilford, CT: Lyons Press, 2003.
  • Swift, Jonathan. Proposal for Correcting, Improving, and Ascertaining the English Tongue. 2d ed. London: Middle-Temple-Gate, 1712.
  • Talese, Gay. “Frank Sinatra Has a Cold.” Esquire, Apr. 1966. Republished on the Web, Oct. 8, 2007. http://www.esquire.com/features/ESQ1003-OCT_SINATRA_rev_.
  •  Thill, Scott. “The Mattress Racket—Why You End Up Paying a Lot More for a Bed Than You Should.” AlterNet, July 19, 2010. http://www.alternet.org/story/147581/.
  • Thinkmap Visual Thesaurus. http://www.visualthesaurus.com.
  • Thomason, Sarah G. “Chinook Jargon.” In Encyclopedia of Linguistics, edited by Philipp Strazny. New York: Routledge, 2004.
  • Tieken-Boon van Ostade, Ingrid. The Bishop’s Grammar: Robert Lowth and the Rise of Prescriptivism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
  • Tiersma, Peter M. Legal Language. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
  • Tims, Anna. “The secret to . . . clear written communication.” The Guardian, Nov. 27, 2010.
  • “Tips and Tools: Simple Word Suggestions.”PlainLanguage.gov. http://www.plainlanguage.gov/howto/wordsuggestions/simplewords.cfm.
  • Transworld Schools. Training materials used for instructors earning certificates in teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL).
  • Tuttle, Logan. “Kenai Homesteader, 90, Has Seen It All.” Anchorage Daily News, Aug. 14, 2011.
  •  “Universal Grammar.” In Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Apr. 24, 2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/618094/Universal-Grammar.
  • Urban Dictionary. http://www.urbandictionary.com.
  • Van Over, Raymond. Sun Songs: Creation Myths from Around the World. Scarborough: Mentor, 1980.
  • Verhovek, Sam Howe. “Educators to Study Utilization (Use) of Plain English.” New York Times, Oct. 4, 1991.
  • Wade, Nicholas. “Ancient Clicks Hint Language Is Africa-Born.” New York Times, Apr. 15, 2011.
  • ———. “Sit. Stay. Parse. Good Girl!” New York Times, Jan. 18, 2011.
  • ———. “Speech Gene Shows Its Bossy Nature.” New York Times, Nov. 12, 2009.
  • Warner, Anthony. English Auxiliaries: Structure and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  • Washington, Margaret. Narrative of Sojourner Truth. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.
  • Wheeler, David. “‘Google Doesn’t Laugh’: Saving Witty Headlines in the Age of SEO.” Atlantic Online, May 11, 2011. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2011/05/google-doesnt-laugh-saving-witty-headlines-in-the-age-of-seo/238656/.
  • Wheeler, Dr. L. Kip.  “Celtic Inhabitants of Britain.”  (Material for a composition and literature class at Carson-Newman College.) Last modified Mar. 30, 2012.  http://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/hist_celts.html.
  • Whetstone, George. The Rocke of Regarde. London, 1576.
  • Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass. The Project Gutenberg EBook of Leaves of Grass. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1322/1322-h/1322-h.htm.
  • Wilkinson, Alec. Moonshine. New York: Penguin Books, 1986.
  • Williams, Joseph M. Style: Toward Clarity and Grace. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.
  •  “Winners 2010.” CLIO Awards. http://www.clioawards.com/winners/index.cfm?winners_year=2010.
  • Wolfe, Tom. The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. Excerpted in The New Journalism,   edited by Tom Wolfe and E. W. Johnson. New York: Harper & Row, 1973.
  • Wolfram, Walt, and Erik R. Thomas. The Development of African American
English. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2002.
  • Woolf, Virginia. Mrs. Dalloway. 1925. Reprint, New York: Mariner Books, 1990.
  • Yagoda, Ben. “On Language: Parts of Speech.” New York Times, July 9, 2006.
  • ———. When You Catch an Adjective, Kill It. New York: Broadway Books, 2007.
  • Zelman, Joanna. “Dog Breaks Vocabulary Record: Chaser the Border Collie Understands over 1,000 Words.” Huffington Post, Jan. 11, 2011.
  • Zenk, Henry. “Chinook Jargon (Chinuk Wawa).” In The Oregon Encyclopedia. Aug. 25, 2011. http://www.oregonencyclopedia.org/entry/view/chinook_jargon/.
  • D. P. Ziegeler, “Mood and Modality.” In Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Boston: Elsevier, 2006.
  • Zimmer, Benjamin. “Churchill vs. Editorial Nonsense.” Language Log. Nov. 27, 2005. http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/002670.html.
  • ———. “Crash Blossoms.” New York Times, Jan. 31, 2010.
  • ———. “A Misattribution No Longer to Be Put Up With.” Language Log, Dec. 12, 2004. http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/001715.html.
  • Zinsser, William. On Writing Well. 7th ed. New York: HarperCollins, 2006.
  • ———. “Writing Good English.” Lecture to foreign students at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, Aug. 11, 2009. The American Scholar. http://www.theamericanscholar.org/writing-english-as-a-second-language/.