Books to inspire

(Some “how to” books that actually help) My books are sometimes called grammar books (Sin and Syntax) sometimes usage manuals (Wired Style), sometimes style guides (Vex, Hex, Smash, Smooch). Their explicit purpose is to help readers perk up their writing. But their implicit purpose is what was once called “philology” and what my Grotto colleague Jason Roberts calls “language appreciation.” I want to make people fall passionately in love with English, become infatuated with sentences, see that prose can be as beautiful as poetry. My favorite part of the writing process comes at the beginning: I go the Library of Congress and search for everything ever written on my subject. Then I find a carrel and wait for books to be delivered to me. One of those was a delightful book called The Garden of Eloquence, published in 1577. Another was a little book self-published by Mark Twain called English As She Is Taught, which collected the hilarious impressions schoolchildren hold of grammar. (“Every sentence and name of God should begin with a caterpillar.”) Another find was History of English Prose Rhythm, originally published in 1912 by George Saintsbury. One of the most influential literary critics of the late Victorian era, Saintsbury was also an oenophile and wine writer. (The winery that makes my favorite Pinot Noir bears his name.) Saintsbury was known for his unsurpassed ear for the felicities of sound and meter. If you can find the book, let him guide you through the literature of iambs and anapests. And look for the spot in which he compares the secret of sentence-making—the letting out and pulling in of clauses—to the letting out and pulling in of the slides of a trombone or the “draws” of a telescope. Here are other books that have become my favorites, whether because I discovered them at the Library of Congress, or because I’ve turned to them again and again when I’ve been in trouble. The list also includes books recommended by writers I trust. They are listed alphabetically, so make sure to read to the end! The Art of Subtext: Beyond Plot, by Charles Baxter Part of The Art Of series from Graywolf Press (along withThe Art of Time in Memoir below), Baxter describes how writers create subtext and illustrates his points with examples of from a range of authors. The Art of the Novel, by Milan Kundera Kundera analyzes the work of several influential novelists and discusses the views that shape his own work. This is writer Rachel Howard’s favorite book on novel writing. The Art of Time in Memoir: Then, Again, by Sven Birkerts Birkerts draws from the work of Virginia Woolf, Jamaica Kincaid and others to analyze different ways in which writers have approached their memoirs. Writer Rachel Howard considers this the best book on memoir writing. Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life, by Anne Lamott  An inspirational book, especially when you're just beginning. Feeling overwhelmed when starting? Lamott’s personal stories demystify the image of the successful writer. Writers at all levels of experience, she writes, start with "shitty first drafts." Bringing the Devil to His Knees: The Craft of Fiction and the Writing Life, edited by Charles Baxter and Peter Turchi A collection of essays and lectures on the fiction writing process by teachers from the Warren Wilson MFA program. The Complete Plain Words, by Sir Ernest Gowers If your days are filled with “business-related correspondence,” or “the above-mentioned matter,” this is a book for you. Sir Ernest Gowers, the style god entrusted with updating the second edition of Fowler’s, published the original Plain Words: Their ABC in 1954. This edition is filled with entertaining tidbits: George Bernard Shaw going ballistic over split infinitives, Winston Churchill going sarcastic on prepositions at the end of sentences, and an Egyptian minister’s message to a civil servant, illustrating the value of down-to-earth sentences. A caveat, though: some of Gowers’ stories are apocryphal, like that one about Churchill. His influence was great, and his stories were told and retold—until linguists got suspicious and debunked them. So make sure to consult a recent usage manual by credible experts along with the Gowers. (Linguist Ben Zimmer and authors Patricia O’Conner and Stewart Kellerman are sterling sources.) The Craft of Interviewing, by John Brady A classic for journalists. Don’t miss the discussion of Rex Reed’s much-debated interview with Ava Gardner. Reed says a mutual friend told him that the star’s reaction to “Ava: Life in the Afternoon” was, “That sonuvabitch knows more about me than I do.” The Elements of Style, Fourth Edition by William Strunk, Jr. and E.B. White I have mixed feelings about including this one. Who can argue with E. B. White’s spare and unsparing prose? This is the book everyone loves. Or loves to hate: Take a look at this essay in the Chronicle of Higher Education. My opinion is that it’s benign. A good primer for high school students, but ultimately, not all that helpful if you are trying to write stylishly or wanting to explore your own voice. And—who woulda thunk it?—Strunk’s original is on the Web, too. The Fire in Fiction: Passion, Purpose and Techniques to Make Your Novel Great, by Donald Maass Whether you're developing your characters or deepening your plot, this book aims to help you infuse your story with deep conviction and fiery passion. Many writers have found the techniques in this book helpful during the revision process. Follow the Story, by James B. Stewart Stewart is a former page one editor at The Wall Street Journal, and the winner of a Pulitzer Prize. His book covers the entire process of nonfiction writing, from idea conception to proposing a story. The Forest for the Trees: An Editor's Advice to Writersby Betsy Lerner When you’re ready to hang it all up in frustration, crack this book. Lerner has worked at top publishing companies and approaches writing from an editor's perspective. Divided into two parts, the first identifies six author personality types (with names like the Ambivalent Writer, the Wicked Child and the Neurotic), while the second is a guide to the publishing process, from contacting publishers to reading reviews. How to Write Short: Word Craft for Fast Timesby Roy Peter Clark Do you tweet or blog? Then you know the challenge of writing brief, and within strict limits. And, of course, honing the craft extends far beyond such here-today, gone-tomorrow writing. What I love about this book is that Clark looks to great literature, and the Bible, for clues about how to write pithily, no matter the platform. In Clark's words, “The discipline of the poet is the discipline of the headline writer, the discipline of the 140-character Tweeter.” If You Want to Write: A Book about Art, Independence and Spirit, by Brenda Ueland First published in 1938, If You Want to Write is a quick read that has offered encouragement to generations of writers and artists. Ueland references God and Christianity, which some may find off-putting, but there’s much here to appeal to catholic (note the lower case) sensibilities. A Kite in the Wind, edited by Andrea Barrett and Peter Turchi Like Bringing the Devil to His Knees, this is a collection of essays and lectures covering various aspects of crafting fiction. All contributors are master teachers from the Warren Wilson MFA program. Letters to a Young Poet, by Rainer Maria Rilke This collection of ten letters written by the German poet Rainer Maria Rilke, to a young correspondent, will re-inspire you when you’re ready to give up as a writer. One of my all-time favorite books. The Making of the Story, by Alice LaPlante LaPlante guides writers through every stage of the creative writing process. Especially helpful for beginners. On Writing: A Memoir of the Craft, by Stephen King First published in 2000, On Writing has become a new classic. Half memoir and half advice for the writer—King’s book gives an honest look at what lead him to become such a prolific author. He shares his wisdom on what it takes to be successful but also offers irreverent wit on everything from intransitive verbs to passive voice. On Writing Well, by William Zinsser Gets better and better with each edition. I’ve quoted Zinsser on endings to dozens—maybe even scores—of writers. Zinsser boils down his philosophy to four “articles of faith”: clarity, simplicity, brevity, and humanity. Read his chapter on Endings for advice I remember every time I’m editing a story. “Politics and the English Language” in A Collection of Essays. (Also available online.)

A classic written in 1946 by the author of 1984 and Animal Farm, this essay appears in several collections of George Orwell’s work. Short but substantial, it includes this list of rules:

i.          Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.

ii.         Never use a long word where a short one will do.

iii.        If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.

iv.        Never use the passive where you can use the active.

v.    Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.

vi.        Break any of these rules sooner than say anything out right barbarous.

The Right to Write: An Invitation and Initiation into the Writing Life, by Julia Cameron By the author of the popular The Artist's Way, this book shifts the focus just to writing, with personal essays and exercises. Cameron's approach might not appeal to everyone, but her goal is to help those who wish to integrate writing into their daily lives. Self-Editing for Fiction Writers, Second Edition: How to Edit Yourself Into Print, by Renni Browne and Dave King If you're ready to whip that fiction manuscript into shape, try the techniques of Browne and King, both professional editors. Examples from well-known writers, and books that the authors have edited, help underline their points. They will also guide through the editing process. The Sound on the Page, by Ben Yagoda Authors share thoughts on style and voice in their own words in this collection of interviews conducted by journalist Ben Yagoda. The more than of 40 writers featured include novelists like Junot Díaz and Michael Chabon, as well as journalists like Susan Orlean and Jonathan Raban, as well as academics and Supreme Court justices. Author Ann Beattie offered this blurb: "I'll walk under ladders, but superstitiously avoid books about writing. Ben Yagoda's book, however, is exciting and thought-provoking." Spunk and Bite, by Arthur Plotnik As you've probably guessed from its title (playing off of the names of the authors of Elements of Style), this book is less about the technical side of writing and grammar, and more of a guide to developing one's voice. Sections include "Flexibility," "Freshness," "Texture," and more. Still Writing, by Dani Shapiro Along the lines of Bird by Bird, Shapiro gives insight into living life on the writing path. The New York Times Book Review applauds: “Shapiro’s patient elaboration of the path ahead” and adds that “her guidance is sound, and her imagery can be transporting.” 13 Ways of Looking at the Novel, by Jane Smiley A mix of literary history and criticism, analyses of novels, and advice for the writer. To the Point: A Dictionary of Concise Writing, by Robert Hartwell Fiske This recommendation comes with a backhand compliment: If your writing seems obscured by wordiness, this 608-page reference book might help. Fiske gives alternatives to unnecessarily lengthy words and phrases and even offers the vocabulary-building "Guide to Obfuscation: A Reverse Dictionary." Wonderbook: The Illustrated Guide to Creating Imaginative Fiction, by Jeff Vandermeer Wonderbook is a hefty, beautifully illustrated book filled with wisdom and techniques for effective storytelling. It's geared towards fiction writers, but is well-rounded enough that writers in other genres could find it useful (and lovely to look at). Writing Tools: 50 Essential Strategies for Every Writer, by Roy Peter Clark Truly a book for every writer. Writing Tools is divided into sections that range from language use and grammar ("Nuts and Bolts"), to the practice of writing ("Useful Habits"). Clark, vice president and senior scholar at Poynter Institute, believes that "Writing is a craft you can learn. You need tools, not rules." Writing Well, Ninth Edition by Donald Hall and Sven Birkerts A whopper: words, sentences, argument, mechanics, exercises—it’s all here, it’s all clear. It does scream “textbook, textbook, textbook,” but the effect is mitigated by the insight and erudition of its authors, Donald Hall, a distinguished poet, and Sven Birkerts, a book critic and devotee of reading. Zen in the Art of Writing: Releasing the Creative Genius within You, by Ray Bradbury In the very first chapter Bradbury focuses on the "Joy of Writing" and says, "if you are writing without zest, without gusto, without love, without fun, you are only half a writer." A writer he says, "should be a thing of fevers and enthusiasms." It is motivational and energizing.

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I don’t want to be endlessly recursive, but “Cool Tools” includes more lists of books in other, closely related categories. Books specifically about grammar, are listed in a separate essay titled “Grammar in doorstoppers and handbooks.” And books about when words are wrong and right you will find under “Books on usage and abusage.” finally books on the more narrow definition of style are under “Style, the way the editors define it.” Some of these essays list the best online resources as well.   {In compiling this list and getting some background on books, I was given assists by Kailani Moran and by Rachel Howard.}

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